What is diabetes, symptoms, causes, risk factors, complications, treatment, diet, diagnosis, and what causes diabetes in children?

What is Diabetes?

  • Diabetes also called as sugar by many people.
  • It is a type of metabolic disease due to which high blood sugar level occurs.
  • The group of diabetic diseases is known as Diabetes Mellitus. 
  • The body of diabetic patients either cannot make insulin on its own or cannot use insulin effectively.

(How to Control High Blood Sugar Level Naturally)

How many types of diabetes are there?

Uncontrolled high blood sugar can affect the eyes, nerves, kidneys and other organs. There are some types of diabetes such as –

  • Type 1 Diabetes – This is an autoimmune disease in which our immune system destroys the cells of the pancreas that make insulin.
  • Type 2 Diabetes – When our body is not sensitive to insulin and sugar starts forming in the blood.
  • Prediabetes – When a person’s blood sugar is higher than normal and cannot be considered a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes – High blood sugar during pregnancy, in which hormones that block insulin are produced by the placenta.
  • Type 3 Diabetes – According to some research in today’s time, autoimmune disease which affects in many ways. It is called by many people.
  • Diabetes insipidus – This condition is different from diabetes mellitus in that the body removes too much fluid from the kidneys.

What are the symptoms of diabetes?

Symptoms of diabetes due to increased blood sugar level are –

Common symptoms of diabetes?

  • Tiredness
  • Blurred vision
  • Blisters that do not heal
  • Unexplained weight loss
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased appetite
  • Frequent urination

What are the symptoms of diabetes in men?

What are the symptoms of diabetes in women?

Type 1 diabetes

  • Frequent urination
  • Being tired
  • Weight loss for no reason
  • Increased thirst
  • Increased appetite
  • Mood changes

Type 2 diabetes

  • Blisters that do not heal quickly
  • Increased appetite
  • Increased thirst
  • Frequent urination
  • Vision problems
  • Glucose level up and down
  • Frequent infections

Gestational diabetes

  • Most women do not have any symptoms.
  • This condition is detected by regular blood sugar test or glucose tolerance which is done in 24th and 28th week of pregnancy.

What are the causes of diabetes?

The cause of each type of diabetes is different.

Type 1 diabetes

  • Doctors do not know the real cause of type 1 diabetes.
  • During this, the immune system mistakenly attacks the cells that make insulin.
  • In some people, the reason for this is genetic.

Type 2 diabetes

Gestational diabetes

  • This happens due to hormonal changes during pregnancy.
  • Insulin does not work properly in pregnant women due to excessive production of a hormone called placenta.
  • It can happen to women who gain weight before or during pregnancy. 

What are the risk factors associated with diabetes?

Type 1 diabetes

  • Chances of it happening are more in children or adolescents.
  • It can also be due to genetics if the parents or any siblings are suffering from this condition.

Type 2 diabetes

  • Being over 45
  • Genetics
  • Not being physically active
  • Being overweight or obese
  • High blood pressure
  • High cholesterol
  • High triglycerides
  • Prediabetics

Gestational diabetes

  • Age over 25
  • Having gestational diabetes during last pregnancy
  • Having belly fat
  • Family history of type 2 diabetes
  • PCOS

What are the complications associated with diabetes?

High blood sugar causes damage to the organs and tissues of the body. Apart from this, if the blood sugar level remains high for a long time, the risk of complications can increase such as –

Gestational diabetes

  • Premature birth
  • Low blood sugar
  • Higher risk of type 2 diabetes later
  • Dead birth
  • Jaundice
  • High blood pressure
  • May need a c-section

What is the treatment of diabetes?

For its treatment, doctors use oral medications or injections.

(Homeopathy treatment for diabetes)

Type 1 diabetes

The main treatment for this is insulin because the patient’s body is unable to make this hormone. Therefore it is given through insulin pen. Of which four types are used the most.

  • The effect of rapid acting insulin starts from 15 minutes and lasts for 3 to 4 hours.
  • The effect of short acting insulin starts from 30 minutes and lasts for 6 to 8 hours.
  • The effect of intermediate acting insulin starts between 1 to 2 hours and lasts for 12 to 18 hours.
  • The effect of long lasting insulin starts within a few hours of injection and lasts for 24 hours or more.

Type 2 diabetes

  • This type of diabetes can be managed with diet and exercise.
  • Medication may be needed if blood sugar levels do not come down with lifestyle changes.

Gestational diabetes

  • During pregnancy, there is a need to check the blood sugar level several times a day.
  • Insulin is needed when the sugar level is high.

Diabetes control diet

Healthy eating habits are essential to manage diabetes. In some cases, diabetes can be controlled with dietary changes.

Type 1 diabetes

  • The blood sugar level keeps going up and down depending on the type of food eaten.
  • Levels rise rapidly by eating starchy or sugary food.
  • Due to protein and fat, sugar level increases.
  • For this, a small amount of carbs should be taken in the diet.
  • Carbs intake can be balanced with insulin dosage.
  • For this consult your dietician.

(Avoid these foods if you have diabetes)

Type 2 diabetes

  • By eating the right food, blood sugar levels can be controlled and excess weight can be reduced.
  • For this it is very important to count the carbs.
  • To keep the blood sugar level right, it is necessary to take small meals.
  • Also, take fruits, vegetables, whole grains, healthy fats like olive oil and nuts in the food.

Gestational diabetes

  • A balanced diet for 9 months is very important for you and the unborn baby .
  • Diabetes medicines can be avoided by eating the right food.
  • You should know about the diet after talking to the doctor.

How to diagnose diabetes?

  • Tests should be done if there are symptoms of diabetes. Whereas routine tests should be done in the second and third trimesters of pregnant women.
  • For this blood tests are done in which prediabetics and patients with diabetes are detected.
  • Apart from this, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test is done after being hungry for 8 hours.
  • Whereas the A1C test detects the blood sugar level of the last three months.

(Diabetic patients should eat this fruit, it is very beneficial)

How to prevent diabetes?

  • Type 1 diabetes is not preventable because it is caused by a problem with our immune system.
  • Whereas some type 2 diabetes is caused by genetics or age which is not under your control.
  • Apart from this, diabetes can be prevented with the following changes such as diet and fitness routine .
  • Exercise for at least 150 minutes a week such as cycling or walking.
  • Reduce saturated, trans fat and refined carbs from your diet.
  • Eat food in small portions.
  • Eat more fruits, vegetables and whole grains.
  • If you are overweight, try to lose weight and reduce body fat.
  • This will help in preventing diabetes.

Diabetes in children

Children can have both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Heart and kidney damage can occur if blood sugar levels are not controlled.

(Best snacks for diabetics)

Type 1 diabetes

  • Mostly this autoimmune type of diabetes starts in childhood.
  • Among its symptoms is excessive urination.
  • Children with type 1 diabetes start wetting the bed.
  • Its symptoms are excessive thirst, fatigue, hunger.

Type 2 diabetes

  • It is very rare to have it in children.
  • While obesity, it is more common in overweight children.
  • Most children do not have any symptoms.
  • It is known only after physical examination.
  • Without treatment, it can become a life-long complication, which includes heart disease, kidney disease and blindness.
  • It can be managed in children by eating healthy food and exercising.


Some types of diabetes like type 1 have factors that are beyond your reach. On the other hand, type 2 can be prevented by making better lifestyle changes, exercising and losing weight.

You should discuss with your doctor about the risk of diabetes etc. If there is a risk, along with getting the blood sugar test done, the guidelines given by the doctor should be followed.

(What is type 4 diabetes? Know its symptoms, causes, treatment and diagnosis)

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